Teachers lie at the core of any living society. They are important mediators of social change, social reconstruction and social rejuvenation. A teacherâ€™s role is not only that of the leader of the children but of the guide to the entire community. Teachers being so vitally important for any society, the task of their preparation and education assumes equal importance.
Information and communication technology (ICT) has become, within a very short time, one of the basic building blocks of modern society. The incorporation of Information and Communication Technologies in education and training programmes has profound influence in teaching and teacher preparation. The student accesses knowledge and information through Internet, TV, satellite and cable network and digital media to synchronise learning mediated through these multiple delivery mechanisms.
Educational systems around the world are under increasing pressure to use the new Information and Communication Technologies to teach students the knowledge and skills they need in the 21st century. For a pre-service teacher education program without an integration of Information and Communication Technology, it could not be said to be a complete one. Hence arises the need to study the status of ICT education in teacher training institutes and utilisation of ICT by teachers at school level.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
â€œInformation and Communication Technology (ICT) Education as a component in Pre-service Teacher Education programme in Delhiâ€.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study has been conducted with the following objectives in mind:
1. Enumerate the limitations faced by practicing teachers while utilising Information and Communication Technology in real classroom setting.
2. Identify the components needed under Information and Communication Technology education in pre-service teacher education programme.
3. Assess the resources in teacher training institutes for implementing Information and Communication Technology education effectively.
DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
Keeping in view the limited resources, limited finances, time, capacity and energies, the investigator has delimited the present problem as follows:
1. Only two types of schools have been covered under the study viz. Government and Public schools.
2. Gender and age of the subjects has no effect on the responses made by them
3. Only three universities offering pre-service teacher education programme in Delhi have been taken up for the study, namely, University of Delhi, Jamia Millia Islamia and Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University.
4. All schools regardless of the region have been considered at par in terms of infrastructure, manpower and the methodology used.
5. A limited sample has been taken which can not be generalised.
DESIGN OF THE STUDY
The quality of a piece of research depends to a large extent on the appropriateness of a research design. The present study is qualitative and descriptive in nature which is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held, processes that are going on, effects that are evident, or trends that are developing.
In the present study about Information and Communication Technology education in Pre-service Teacher Education, samples were drawn from:
- Practicing teachers
- Teacher educators
The population for each within Delhi is very large. It is not possible to gather data from the entire population given the constraints. A sample was taken which is representative of the whole population. The conclusions are drawn and generalisations are made about the whole population based on an examination of some parts of the whole. The sampling strategy adopted in the present study is incidental sampling.
Sample of four practicing teachers was drawn from two types of schools each in Delhi:
- Government Schools
- Public Schools
From three universities offering Pre-service teacher education programmes in Delhi, a sample of two teacher educators each was drawn. The universities from which sample for teacher educators were chosen are:
- University of Delhi
- Jamia Millia Islamia University
- Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
In the present study data has been collected through the administration of questionnaires for both practicing teachers as well as teacher educators. The researcher prepared questionnaire for administration on practicing teachers and teacher educators for data collection. The objectives of preparing a questionnaire for each were as follows:
- To gather factual information about the ICT education received during their pre-service teacher education programme.
- To identify the areas posing limitations while utilising ICT
- To enumerate the various purposes for which they employ ICT
- To assess the ICT resources available for use in pre-service teacher education programme
- To state the requirements for effective implementation of ICT education
- To identify the components needed under ICT education in pre-service teacher education programme.
The researcher did item analysis of both the questionnaires i.e. for teachers and teacher educators.
On the basis of the analysis of the data collected in the study done in the previous chapter, following findings have emerged:
- Practicing teachers in are not aware of the latest in the use of information and communication technology in their teaching subjects. The pre-service teacher education programme does not equip the teachers to be with knowledge and skills for the subject specific use of information and communication technology. Hence, the use of information and communication technology gets limited to be used as a teaching aid and for project or assignment work.
- Practicing teachers have reported that the schools have adequate information and communication technology resources. It can easily be concluded that availability of resources is not a limitation to the use of information and communication technology in their real classroom settings.
- Time constraint while employing information and communication technology in their classroom teaching poses a hindrance and acts as a limitation for the practicing teachers.
- Almost all teachers (seven out of eight) acknowledge their school managementâ€™s encouragement to employ information and communication technology. At the same time it is worth noting that not all schools provide for a special provision of time slot in the timetable for the use of information and communication technology.
- Teacher educators feel that there is adequate availability of information and communication technology resources in their institutes, but there is not enough provision for their maintenance and servicing to ensure their regular use and proper functioning.
- The teacher educators have cited the need to train trainees in the following areas under information and communication technology:
- Use of Internet,
- CAI & CAL packages
- MS Office
- A few teacher educators have also mentioned training for the use of Overhead projectors, Film-strip projectors, Lingua phones and models of teaching under information and communication technology. This clearly indicates that the teacher educators themselves are not aware of information and communication technology. They confuse educational technology as information and communication technology.
- Following requirements are cited by teacher educators for starting information and communication technology in pre-service teacher education programme:
- specialised trained personnel
- hardware resources,
- software packages and
- books and learning material
Following are some suggestions for future researches in the field of ICT education and Pre-service teacher education:
- A study may be conducted to assess the impact of ICT in pre-service teacher education on teaching in school education
- A study may be conducted to do comparative analysis of ICT Education in Pre-service teacher education programmes offered in universities in Delhi.
- A study may be conducted to critically analyse the curriculum of ICT education in Pre-service Teacher Education Programme.
- The study can be replicated on a larger sample.
- The study can be extended to more states.
(This is a summary of the dissertation submitted to Department of Education, University of Delhi by Varshita Mahajan 2005-2006)